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海上风电产业有望新增近100万个就业岗位

2021-02-23 07:20:18 点击:24 来自:一纸水与青

中国石化新闻网讯 据今日油价网站2月20日消息 Covid-19再次导致石油和天然气行业的就业率大幅下降。尽管预计经济复苏到来时就业率会有所上升,但就业率基本不会回到几年前的辉煌。然而,雷斯塔能源的一份分析报告显示,有一个能源行业将成为新的能源就业天堂——海上风电。到本世纪末,对海上风电员工的需求将增加两倍,从2020年的29.7万个全职岗位激增86.8万个。事实上,由于2025年的就业需求可能达到约58.9万个岗位,招聘热潮在本世纪中叶就已经显现。

雷斯塔能源估计,到2025年,海上风电装机容量可能增至110吉瓦,到2030年将增至250吉瓦,这种多产的增长需要大量熟练的员工。在雷斯塔能源的分析中,计算了全职等效工人数量的人员需求,并且仅包括全球海上风电容量部署驱动的直接和间接工作。

直接工作涉及开发、制造、施工、安装以及海上风电场的运营和维护。间接工作涉及所消耗的材料和服务,如支持海上风力涡轮机的钢铁厂的工人、供应机舱部件的公司的电子工人以及可再生能源监管机构的工作人员。

这些工作分为建设与开发和运营与维护两类,前者通常是资本支出,后者与运营支出有关。预计未来十年,C&D工作岗位将占就业岗位的大部分,不过随着2030年的临近,C&D工作岗位在总就业岗位中所占的比例将有所下降。

与此同时,在风电场装机容量的推动下,运营和维护工作岗位在2020年占总工作岗位的7%左右,2025年将占12%左右。随着海上风电装机容量的快速增长,运维将在总就业岗位中获得更大份额。然而,C&D的角色仍将占据主导地位,因为一个典型的海上风电场在投产前花费了60-70%的资本支出,这需要一到三年的时间。

与制造业相关的C&D角色约占总潜力的66%,而安装工作占10%,项目开发占4%。O&M在总就业潜力中增加了20%的份额。

到2030年,涡轮制造业将继续创造大部分就业岗位,占总就业岗位的54%。因此,西门子歌美飒、Vestas、Goldwind和GE可再生能源等涡轮机制造商预计将在未来几年雇佣更多劳动力,并为更大的涡轮机建立更多工厂。

王磊 摘译自 今日油价

原文如下:

Offshore Wind Industry Looks To Add Nearly 1 Million New Jobs

The Covid-19 downturn has once again caused employment rates to plummet in the oil and gas industry. Even though some uptick is expected when the recovery arrives, employment will never return to the glories of just a few years ago. However, there is an energy segment that will be the new hiring haven for energy jobs, a Rystad Energy analysis shows – offshore wind. Demand for offshore wind staff will triple by the end of the decade, surging to 868,000 full-time jobs from an estimated 297,000 in 2020. In fact, the hiring spree will already be visible in the middle of the decade, as jobs demand could reach about 589,000 in 2025.

Rystad Energy estimates offshore wind installed capacity could rise to 110 gigawatts (GW) by 2025 and 250 GW by 2030. This prolific growth will require a lot of skilled employees. In our analysis we have calculated the staffing needs in the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) workers – one year of full-time employment for one person regardless of actual hours – and included only direct and indirect jobs driven by offshore wind capacity deployment globally.

Direct jobs relate to development manufacturing, construction, installation, and the operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms. Indirect jobs relate to materials and services consumed, such as workers in steel plants supporting offshore wind turbines, electronics workers at companies supplying nacelle components, and staff of renewable energy regulatory institutions.

The jobs are grouped as construction and development (C&D) – which are typically capital expenditures – and operation and maintenance (O&M) roles – which relate to operational expenditures. The C&D jobs are expected to account for most of the employment over the next decade, although its share of the total employment decreases as we approach 2030.

O&M jobs, meanwhile, driven by the installed capacity of wind farms, have contributed about 7% of the total job count in 2020 and will make up about 12% in 2025. With a rapid increase in offshore wind installed capacity, O&M will gain a larger share of the total jobs. C&D roles will still dominate, however, because a typical offshore wind farm spends 60-70% of its capex in the lead-up to its commissioning, which takes between one and three years.

C&D roles related to manufacturing – turbines, cables, substations and foundations – contribute about 66% of the total potential, while installation jobs account for 10% and project development for 4%. O&M adds a 20% share to the total jobs potential.

By 2030, turbine manufacturing will continue to create most of the jobs, accounting for 54% of the total. Therefore, turbine manufacturers such as Siemens Gamesa, Vestas, Goldwind and GE Renewable Energy are expected to employ additional labor and establish more factories for bigger turbines in the coming years.

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